Introduction page
  • Khunti K, Taub N, Tringham J et al 2010. Screening for the metabolic syndrome using simple arthropometric measurements in south Asian ans white Europeans: A population-based screening study.The Leicester Ethnic Athersclerosis and Diabetes Risk (LEADER) Study. Primary Care Diabetes 4(1): 25-32
  • Slater M, Perruccio AV, Badley EM 2011. Musculoskeletal comorbidities in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory disease: the impact on activity limitations; a representative population-based study. BMC Public Health 11: 77-84.
  • Woolf AD, Pflger B 2003. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions. Bull World Health Organ 81(9): 646-56
  • Felson DT, Zhang Y 1998. An update on the epidemiology of knee and hip osteoarthritis with a view to prevention. Arthritis Rheum 41(8):1343-55
  • Lanyon P, Muir K, Doherty S, Doherty M 2003. Age and sex differences in hip joint space among asymptomatic subjects without structural change: implications for epidemiologic studies. Arthritis Rheum 48(4):1041-6.
  • McCormick A, Fleming D, Charlton J 1995. Morbidity statistics from general practices. Fourth national study 1991-1992. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Series MB5 No.3.
  • Peat G, Duncan R, Thomas E2008. Data from CAS-K study. Personal communication.
    Odding E, Valkenburg HA, Algra D, Vandenouweland FA, Grobbee DE, Hofman A 1998. Associations of radiological osteoarthritis of the hip and knee with locomotor disability in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Rheum Dis 57(4):203-8.
  • Spector TD, Cicuttini F, Baker J, Loughlin J, Hart D 1996. Genetic influences on osteoarthritis in women: a twin study. BMJ 13 312(7076):940-3.
  • WHO Technical Report Series 2003. The Burden of Musculoskeletal Conditions at the Start of the New Millennium – Report of a WHO scientific group, Geneva. World Health Organization Report No. 919.
Physical Examination
  • A 2000. Radiographic change is common in new presenters in primary care with hip pain. Rheumatology (Oxford) 39:772–775.
  • BW 2001. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging and physical examination findings in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 44:2138–2145.
  • A 2001. PCR Hip Study Group. Predicting radiographic hip osteoarthritis from range of movement. Rheumatology (Oxford) 40:506–51
  • AS 2001.Meralgiaparesthetica: diagnosis and treatment. J Am AcadOrthopSurg 9:336–344.
  • CL 2001. Hip pain in the young adult: diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the acetabularlabrum and acetabular dysplasia. Am J Orthop 30:459–467.
  • Hochman JR, Gagliese L, Davis AM, Hawker GA. 2011. Neuropathic pain symptoms in a community knee OA cohort. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 19:647-654.
  • RK. Meralgiaparesthetica as a cause of leg discomfort 1974. Can Med Assoc J 111:541–542.
  • Hofmans-IM1993.The use of ICPC in the Transition project. Episode-oriented epidemiology in general practice. In: Lamberts H, Wood M, Hofmans-Okkes IM, eds. International Classification of Primary Care in the European Community. Oxford: Oxford University Press 45–93
  • Margo K, Drezner J, Motzkin D 2003. Evaluation and management of hip pain: an algorithmic approach. J FamPract 52  [accessed 17.03.2013]
  • B 1995. The role of hip arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of hip disease. Orthopedics 18:753–756.
  • EL1996. Trochanteric bursitis (greater trochanter pain syndrome). Mayo ClinProc 71:565–569.
  • AS1996. The superiority of magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating the cause of hip pain in endurance athletes. Am J Sports Med 24:168–176.
  • Zhang W, Doherty M, Peat G, Bierma-Zeinstra et al 2010. EULAR evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis69:483-48
History and Examination for Knee Pain

Cianflocco AJ 2011. Pathophysiology and diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee. J FamPract 60. [accessed 31.01.2018]

Principles of Management
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2008.Osteoarthritis National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults. London: NICE
  • Zhang W, Doherty M, Peat G, Bierma- Zeinstra MA et al. EULAR evidence based recomendations for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis.
  • Zhang W. Nuki G, MoskowitzS, Abramson RD et al 2010. OARSI recomendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Part III : changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009. Osteoand Cart 18: 476-499
Lifestyle changes
  • Aaboe J, Bliddal H, Messier SP, Alkjaer T, et al 2011. Effects of an Intensive weight loss programme on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. OsteoCartil 9:822-8.
  • ACR OA American College of Rheumatology osteoarthritis guidelines 2009.[Accessed 12.03.2013].
  • Bliddal H, Leeds AR, Stigsgaard L, Astrup A, Christensen 2011. Weight loss as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis symptoms in obese patients: 1 year results from a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Di 70:1798-1803.
  • Christensen R, Bartels EM, Astrup A, Bliddal H 2007. Effect of weight reduction in obese patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis : a systematic review and meta analysis. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases; 66:433-439.
  • Hohberg M, Altman RD, April KT, Benhalti M 2012. American College of Rheumatology 2012 Recommendations for the use of Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Therapies in Osteoarthritis of the Hand, Hip and Knee.Arth Care Res 64:465-474.
  • Messier SP, Gutekunst DJ, Davis C et al 2005. Weight loss reduces knee joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 52:2026-2032.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2006. Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in adults and children. London: NICE.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2008.Osteoarthritis National clinical guideline for care and management in adults. London: NICE
  • Tsai A, Wadden T 2006. The evolution of very low calorie diets: an update and meta- analysis. Obesity 14:1283-93
  • Zhang W, Moskowitz RW, Nuki G, Abramson S et al 2008. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-base, expert consensus guidelines.
  • Zhang W, Doherty M, Arden N, Bannwart B et al 2005. EULAR evidence based recommendations for the management of hip osteoarthritis : a report of a task force for the EULAR Standing Committee for International Clinical Studies Including Therapeutics(ESISIT). Ann Rheum Dis 64:669-81
Non-Pharmacological Treatment
Manual Therapy
  • Deyle GD, Allion SC, Matakel RL et al 2005. Physical therapy treatment effectiveness for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomised comparison of supervised clinical exercise and manual therapy procedures versus a home exercise program. PhyTher 85:1301-17
  • Hoeksma HL, Dekker J, Ronday HK et al. 2004. Comparison of manual therapy and exercise therapy in osteoarthritis of the hip: a randomised controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 51:722-9
  • Maillefert JF, Hudry C, Baron G et al. 2001. Laterally elevated wedged insoles in the treatment of medial knee osteoarthritis; a prospective randomized controlled study. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9: 738-45.
  • Rodrigues PT 2008. Effectiveness of medial-wedge insole treatment for valgus knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis and rheumatism 59: 603-8.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2008.Osteoarthritis National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults. London: NICE
  • Robinson VA, Brosseau L, Peterson J et al. 2001.Therapeutic ultrasound for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3)
  • Brosseau L, Welch V, Wells G et al. 2000. Low level laser therapy for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis. J Rheumatol27: 1961–9.
  • Yurtkuran M, Alp A, Konur S et al. 2007. Laser acupuncture in knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind, randomized controlled study. Photomed Laser Surg25: 14–20.
  • McCarthy CJ, Callaghan MJ, Oldham JA 2006. Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment offers no clinical benefit in reducing the pain of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. BMC Musculoskelet Dis 7: 51.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2008. Osteoarthritis National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults. London: NICE
Psychological Interventions for OA
  • Chapman, C. R. 1978. Pain: the perception of noxious events. In: Sternbach, R.A. ed. The Psychology of Pain. New York: Raven Press, pp. 169-202.
  • Dixon KE, Keefe FJ, Scipio CD et al 2007. Psychosocial interventions for arthritis pain management in adults: a meta-analysis. Health Psychol 26:241-50
  • Eccleston, C. and Crombez, G. 1999. Pain demands attention: a cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain. Psychol Bull 125: 356-366.
  • Henschke, N. et al. 2010. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database SystRev (7), p. CD002014.
    Keefe, F. J. et al. 1991. Analyzing pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Pain coping strategies in patients who have had knee replacement surgery. Pain 46: 153-160.
  • Leeuw, M. et al. 2007. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. J Behav Med 30: 77-94.
    McCracken, L. M. and Keogh, E. 2009. Acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action may counteract fear and avoidance of emotions in chronic pain: an analysis of anxiety sensitivity. J Pain 10: 408-415.
  • McCracken, L. M. and Vowles, K. E. 2007. Psychological flexibility and traditional pain management strategies in relation to patient functioning with chronic pain: an examination of a revised instrument. J Pain 8: 700-707.
  • Macfarlane, G. J. et al. 1999. Predictors of early improvement in low back pain amongst consulters to general practice: the influence of pre-morbid and episode-related factors. Pain 80: 113-119.
  • Pincus, T. and Morley, S. 2001. Cognitive-processing bias in chronic pain: a review and integration. Psychol Bull 127: 599-617.
  • Schoth, D. E. et al. 2012. Attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain; a meta-analysis of visual-probe investigations. ClinPsychol Rev 32: 13-25.
  • van der Windt, D. et al. 2008. Psychosocial interventions for low back pain in primary care: lessons learned from recent trials. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33: 81-89.
  • Villemure, C. and Bushnell, M. C. 2002. Cognitive modulation of pain: how do attention and emotion influence pain processing? Pain 95: 195-199.
  • Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone: 2004.
  • Roland M, Waddell G, Klaber Moffett J, Burton K, Main C. The Back Book. Norwich, UK. The Stationary Office: 2007
Intra-articular injections
  • Hochman JR, Gagliese L, Davis AM, Hawker GA. 2011. Neuropathic pain symptoms in a community knee OA cohort. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage19: 647-654.
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.(2008). Osteoarthritis National Clinical Guideline for Care and Management in Adults. London: NICE
  • Reichenbach S, Rutjes AWS, Nuesch E et al 2009. Joint lavage for osteoarthritis of the knee. The Cochrane Collaboration, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Work and social management
Shared Decision Making
  • Care Quality Commission. The state of health care and adult social care in England. Care Quality Commission 2010.
    Coulter A, Collins A (2011).‘Making Shared Decision Making a Reality – No decision about me without me’. The King’s Fund
    Deyo RA, Cherkin DC, Weinstein J, Howe J et al (2000). ‘Involving patients in clinical decisions: impact of an interactive video program on use of back surgery’ Medical care, vol 38, no.9, pp959-69
  • King JS, Eckman MH, Moulton BW (2011). ‘The potential of shared decision making to reduce health disparities’. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics vol39, pp s30-3
  • Murray E, Burns J, See TS, Lai R, Nazareth I (2005). ‘Interactive health communication applications foe people with chronic disease’. Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, issue 4, article CD004274
  • O’Connor AM, Bennett CL, Stacey D, Barry M et al (2009). ‘Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions’. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 3, article CD001431
  • Picker Institute Europe (2010). ‘Invest in Engagement’. Picker Institute website. (accessed on 13/12/2012)


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