References and resources


  1. Mitchell T, Longyear S: ‘A painful melody: repetitive strain injury among musicians.’ Pittsburgh State University.’ Accessed 15.5.20.
  2. Greic. 1989. Accessed on 22.5.20.
  3. BAPAM factsheet.‘The Healthy Pianist’. P Roskell and H Trouli. Accessed 22.5.20.
  4. BAPAM factsheet. 'BAPAM recommendations to GPs regarding voice clinic referral.’ Accessed 04.08.20.
  5. BAPAM factsheet.‘Vocal Health problems in performing artists: ‘Fit to sing’. Accessed 04.08.20.
  6. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, January 2010. I Iranzo et al. Accessed 04.08.20.
  7. Taddey. 1992. Accessed 29.5.20.
  8. ‘BAPAM factsheet ‘The acoustic guitar.’ S Farruque and P Sogaard. Accessed 04.08.20.
  9. MedPage today: ‘The Majority of Professional Musicians Experience Chronic Pain.’ 21.4.17. Accessed 04.08.20.
  10. NCBI, ‘Prevalence of chronic pain in orchestral musicians’, Gasenzar, 2017. www. Accessed 04.08.20.
  11. Musculoskeletal pain in elite professional musicians from British symphony orchestras.’ R Leaver et al.
  12. ‘Perspectives in Performing Arts Medical Practice: A multidisciplinary approach. S-H Lee et al. Accessed 12.6.20.
  13. ‘BAPAM factsheet Musician’s focal dystonia.’ Accessed 04.08.20.
  14. The dystonia society. Accessed 12.6.20.
  15. BMJ Best Practice: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome. Accessed 19.6.20.
  16. ‘Thoracic Outlet Syndrome affecting high-performance musicians playing bowed string instruments.’ Demaree et al. 2017. Accessed 19.6.20.
  17. ‘Can music make you sick?’. Gross and Musgrave, University of Westminster. 2016. Accessed 19.6.20.
  18. ‘BAPAM factsheet ‘Psychological self-care.’ Chapman. Accessed 04.08.20.
  19. Music Minds Matter,, 08088 028008. Accessed 19.6.20.
  20. BAPAM factsheet. ‘I can’t go on.’ Chapman, Accessed 04.08.20.
  21. ‘Music performance anxiety in classical musicians-what we know about what works.’ BJPsych Int 2017. Matei and Ginsberg. Accessed 19.6.20.
  22. ‘Hearing loss, tinnitus, hyperacusis and diplocusis in professional musicians: a systematic review.’ Di Stadio et al, Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018. Accessed 25.6.20.
  23. BAPEM Factsheet ‘Don’t lose the music!’. Farruque and Hayhurst. Accessed 04.08.20.
  24. ‘Vocal Health problems in performing artists: BAPAM recommendations to GPs regarding voice clinic referral. Costello et al. Accessed 25.6.20.
  25. BAPAM factsheet.‘Vocal Health problems in performing artists: ‘Fit to sing’. Accessed 04.08.20.
  26. BAPAM factsheet.‘Vocal Health problems in performing artists: ‘Fit to sing’. Accessed 04.08.20.
  27. Arq. Gastroenterol. Vol 49 no 2 Sao Paolo. April-June 2012, Melciades et al. Accessed 25.6.20.
  28. ‘Reflux symptoms in wind instrument players.’ Cammarota et al. 1.2.10. Accessed 25.6.20.
  29. ‘Dentistry for musicians.’ Blou, 2015. Accessed 25.6.20.
  30. Dermnet NZ. Accessed 25.6.20.
  31. ‘Drumming up disease? Anthrax and African drum hides.’ Jagatia. Accessed 25.6.20
  32. ‘Intraocular pressure fluctuations in professional brass and woodwind musicians during common playing conditions.’ Schmidtmann et al. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Opthal 2011. Accessed 25.6.20.
  33. BAPEM factsheet ‘Risky Business!’ Accessed 04.08.20.
  34. BAPEM factsheet ‘Healthy touring.’ Accessed 29.6.20.
  35. www. Accessed 29.5.20.
  36. Accessed 29.5.20.
  37. injuries.htm. Accessed 29.5.20.
  38. Prevalence and Patterns of Playing-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Drummers. Accessed 29.5.20.
  39. Https:// Accessed 29.5.20



  1. British Association of Performing Arts Medicine (BAPAM.) 0207 404 8444.
  2. Musicians’ Health website.
  3. Musicians’ Health Scotland.
  4. Musicians’ Union.
  5. Musicians’ Benevolent Fund.
  6. The Dystonia Society.
  7. Focal Dystonia—My History. Michael Houston.
  8. Joint Hypermobility. NHS.
  9. Musicians and Injuries. Paul Marxhausen.
  10. NHS Choices website.
  11. British Voice Association.
  12. Musicians’ Hearing Health Scheme.
  13. RNID, previously known as Action on Hearing Loss (
  14. British Tinnitus Association.
  15. Musicians Hearing Services.
  16. Music Minds Matter. 08088028008.
  17. Mind 03001233393.
  18. Mental Health Foundation.
  19. SAMARITANS Welsh Language Line 03001233011.
  20. The Inner Game of Music. Barry Green with W Timothy Gallwey.
  21. Oliver Sachs.



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