References

Low back pain:

  • Roland M, Waddell G, Klaber Moffett J, Burton K, Main C. The Back Book : TSO Norwich UK : 2007

The burden of back pain:

 Definitions:

  • Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Brussels: European Commission Research Directorate General;2005.
  • Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. AnnInternMed2007;147:478-91.
  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Back pain low (without radiculopathy). Newcastle upon Tyne:CKS;2009.
  • McIntosh G,Hall H. Lowbackpain(acute).ClinEvid2008;10:1102-32.
  • McIntosh G, Hall H. Lowbackpain(chronic).ClinEvid2008;10:1116-44.
    National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Evidence based management of acute musculoskeletal pain. Canberra:NHMRC;2003.
  • National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Low back pain. Clinical guideline 88. Llundain: NICE; 2009.
  • Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P et al. The association between obesity and low back pain: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2010;171:135-54.
  • Van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T et al. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. COST Action B13.Brussels:European Commission Research Directorate General;2004.

Fear Avoidance Model:

  • Chapman, C. R. 1978. Pain: the perception of noxious events. In: Sternbach, R.A. ed. The Psychology of Pain. New York: Raven Press, pp. 169-202.
  • Eccleston, C. and Crombez, G. 1999. Pain demands attention: a cognitive-affective model of the interruptive function of pain. Psychol Bull 125(3), pp. 356-366.
  • Henschke, N. et al. 2010. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7), p. CD002014.
  • Keefe, F. J. et al. 1991. Analyzing pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Pain coping strategies in patients who have had knee replacement surgery. Pain 46(2), pp. 153-160.
  • Leeuw, M. et al. 2007. The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: current state of scientific evidence. J Behav Med 30(1), pp. 77-94.
  • McCracken, L. M. and Keogh, E. 2009. Acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action may counteract fear and avoidance of emotions in chronic pain: an analysis of anxiety sensitivity. J Pain 10(4), pp. 408-415.
  • McCracken, L. M. and Vowles, K. E. 2007. Psychological flexibility and traditional pain management strategies in relation to patient functioning with chronic pain: an examination of a revised instrument. J Pain 8(9), pp. 700-707.
  • Macfarlane, G. J. et al. 1999. Predictors of early improvement in low back pain amongst consulters to general practice: the influence of pre-morbid and episode-related factors. Pain 80(1-2), pp. 113-119.
  • Pincus, T. and Morley, S. 2001. Cognitive-processing bias in chronic pain: a review and integration. Psychol Bull 127(5), pp. 599-617.
  • Schoth, D. E. et al. 2012. Attentional bias towards pain-related information in chronic pain; a meta-analysis of visual-probe investigations. Clin Psychol Rev 32(1), pp. 13-25.
  • van der Windt, D. et al. 2008. Psychosocial interventions for low back pain in primary care: lessons learned from recent trials. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33(1), pp. 81-89.
  • Villemure, C. and Bushnell, M. C. 2002. Cognitive modulation of pain: how do attention and emotion influence pain processing? Pain 95(3), pp. 195-199.
  • Waddell G. The Back Pain Revolution. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2004.
  • Roland M, Waddell G, Klaber Moffett J, Burton K, Main C. The Back Book. Norwich, UK The Stationary Office : 2007

 Acute Low Back Pain Management:

Diagnostic assessment: 

  • Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific lowback pain. Brussels: European Commission Research Directorate General;2005.
  • Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. AnnInternMed2007;147:478-91.
  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Back pain - low (without radiculopathy). Newcastle upon Tyne:CKS; 2009.
  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Sciatica (lumbar radiculopathy). Version 1.0. Newcastle uponTyne: CKS; 2009.
  • Kendall NAS et al. Tackling musculoskeletal problems: a guide for clinic and workplace : identifying obstacles using the psychosocial flags framework.London:TSO;2009.
  • Kendall NAS Linton SJ Main CJ. Guide to assessing psychosocial yellow flags in acute low back pain : risk factors for long term disability and workloss In: Accident and Rehabilitation and Compensation insurance Corporation of New Zealand. Wellington:National Health Committee;1997.
  • National Institute of health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Low back pain. Clinical guideline 88. Llundain: NICE; 2009.
    van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T et al. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care.COST ActionB13.Brussels:European Commission Research Directorate General;2004.

Serious pathology: 

  • Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Brussels: European Commission Research Directorate General;2005.
  • Chou R, Qaseem A, Snow V et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. AnnIntern Med2007;147:478-91.
  • Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain. Royal College of General Practitioners, 2001.
  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Back pain - low (without radiculopathy). Newcastle upon Tyne: CKS; 2009.
  • van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T et al. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primary care. COSTActionB13.Brussels:European Commission Research Directorate General;2004.

 Physical therapies (NICE):

  • Airaksinen O, Brox JI, Cedraschi C. European guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain. Brussels:European Commission Research Directorate General;2005.
  • Chou R, Huffman LH. Medications for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):505-514.
  • Chou R, Huffman LH. Nonpharmacologic therapies for acute and chronic low back pain: a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2007: 147(7):492-504.
  • Chou R, Qaseem A, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):478-491.
  • Chou R, Huffman LH. Guideline for the evaluation and management of low back pain. Glenview, Il: American Pain Society; 2009.
  • Chou R. et al. Interventional Therapies, Surgery, and Interdisciplinary Rehabilitation for Low Back Pain.Spine 34: 1006-1077.
  • Clinical Knowledge Summaries (CKS). Back pain - low (without radiculopathy). Newcastle upon Tyne:CKS; 2009.
  • McIntosh G, Hall H.Lowbackpain(acute).ClinEvid2008;10:1102-32.
  • National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). Evidence based management of acute musculoskeletal pain. Canberra:NHMRC;2003.
  • National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Low back pain. Clinical guideline 88. Llundain: NICE; 2009.
  • National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Low back pain. Clinical guideline 88. London:NICE; 2009.
  • Organising quality and effective spinal services for patients: a report for local health communities by Spinal Taskforce. Llundain: Department of Health; 2010.primarycare.COSTActionB13.Brussels:European
  • Commission Research Directorate General;2004.
  • Van Tulder M, Becker A, Bekkering T et al. European guidelines for the management of acute nonspecific low back pain in primarycare. COSTActionB13.Brussels:European Commission Research Directorate General;2004.

Established chronic back pain:


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